Kyphoscoliosis (a combination of kyphosis and scoliosis) is a medical condition that affects one in 1,000 people—mostly girls and women. It causes a forward, rounding of the spine and bowing of the back, because both the coronal and sagittal planes of the vertebral column are affected. In mild to moderate cases, kyphoscoliosis can cause back pain and psychosocial issues (as a result of the deformity). In severe cases, kyphoscoliosis, can cause problems in the lungs, nerves, and other organs. People with Kyphoscoliosis are at an increased risk of hypoventilation during sleep. Idiopathic kyphoscoliosis can occur in late childhood or early adolescence. Treatment may involve a back brace, physical therapy, surgery to fix the spine, and oxygen therapy for people with kyphoscoliosis-caused hypoxemia. While exercise alone won’t fix the spinal deformity, it can help to strengthen the back muscles and help people with mild kyphoscoliosis manage their pain. Swimming, bicycling, and other non-impact sports are oft recommended. Surgery to treat kyphoscoliosis focuses on correcting the spinal deformity, thereby improving the individual’s posture and reducing pain and complications. This is often achieved by fusing the vertebrae together, using metal implants and bone grafts. Physical therapy often follows surgery of this nature.